Important Topics for Art and Culture for UPSC 2023
Salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature, and Architecture from ancient to modern times
Table of Content - Art and Culture
- Indian Paintings
- Mural Paintings
- Miniature Paintings
- Mughal, Rajput, Pahari Paintings
- Dances in India
- Classical Dance Forms
- Folk Dance Forms
- Modern Dance
- Classical Music
- Folk Music
- String Puppets
- Shadow Puppets
- Rod Puppets
- Glove puppets
- Modern Puppetry
- Tribal Puppetry
- Ochre Coloured Pottery(OCP)
- Black and Red Ware (BRW)
- Painted Grey Ware (PGW)
- Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW)
- Glazed and Unglazed Pottery
- Classical Sanskrit Theatre
- Regional Theatre
- Modern Theatre
- Martial Arts
- Thang Ta
- Other Important Martial Arts
- Visual Art
- Sculptures of Harappan Civilization
- Sculptures of the Mauryan Age
- Post-Mauryan Period
- Jain Sculptures
- Buddhist Sculpture
- Gupta Sculpture
- Medieval School of Sculpture
- Modern Indian Sculpture
- Classical Sanskrit Literature
- Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas
- Books written by Kalidasa, Vishakhadatta etc
- Ancient Buddhist Literature
- Ancient Jainism Literature
- Early Dravidian Literature (eg Sangam Period)
- Medieval Literature
- Trends in Medieval Literature
- Modern Indian Literature
- Harappan Architecture
- Mauryan Architecture
- Post-Mauryan Period Gupta Period
- Temple Architecture
- Nagara Style
- Dravida Style
- Vesara Style
- Cave Architecture
- Buddhist Cave
- Jaina Caves
- Gupta Period Caves
- Medieval and Indo-Islamic Architecture
- Imperial Style Delhi Sultanate
- Provincial Style
- Mughal Style
- Sikh Style of Architecture
- Rajput Architecture
- Salient features
- Colonial Architecture & Modern Architecture
- European Influence
- Indo-Saracenic Architecture
- Post-Independence Period
- Contribution of Buddhism & Jainism to the Development of Indian Architecture
- Rock Cut Architecture
- South Indian
- Western Indian
- Eastern Indian
* Art Forms
> Important Festivals (Art and Culture)
An annual ritual at Sree Vadakkunnathan Temple, Thrissur,
In this more than 50 elephants are fed special food, is done to propitiate Lord Ganesha, who, according to Hindu belief, removes obstacles in one’s life.
Ritual was started to help elephants paraded at the 1982 Games’ opening ceremony regain health.
The festival is dedicated to Goddess Mahakali, thanking her for fulfilling the wishes of her devotees.
Bonalu is a popular festival celebrated in Hyderabad and Secunderabad.
Apart from Yellamma, during the Bonalu festival, the different forms of Mahakali are worshipped,
Including Mysamma, Dokkalamma, Pedamma, Pochamma, Yellamma, Poleramma and Ankalamma.
During this, the devotees offer rice cooked with milk and jaggery in an earthen or brass pot, which is decorated with neem leaves, turmeric and vermilion.
- Women carry these pots on their heads to temples.
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> Important Festivals (Art and Culture)
* Literature (Art and Culture)
* Architecture (Art and Culture)
> Keshava temple at Somanathapur
The 13th-century Keshava temple also called “poetry in stone”, is getting a makeover ahead of the proposed visit of the UNESCO team to inspect the Hoysala monument nominated for inscription as a World Heritage Site.
The Chennakesava Temple, is a Vaishnava Hindu temple on the banks of River Kaveri at Somanathapura, Karnataka, India.
The temple was consecrated in 1258 CE by Somanatha Dandanayaka, a general of the Hoysala King Narasimha III.
It is located 38 kilometres (24 mi) east of Mysuru city
Hoysalas combined Vesara and Dravida styles and developed a new Hoysala style.
- Star shaped platform
- The jagati around the temple is the open pradakshinapatha.
- Polished pillar with a variety of designs.
- Elaborate carvings and beautifully carved madanika figures.
- Vimana(shikara) in pyramidical shape.
- Most of their temples are in Bhumija style. In this style, miniature shikhara is carved on the outer wall of the temple.
The Archaeological Survey of India has now taken up conservation work at this important Buddhist site near Kalaburagi.
- It is an ancient Buddhist site on the bank of the Bhima river near Kanaganahalli in the Kalaburagi district.
- Magnificent Maha Stupa, which was referred to as Adholoka Maha Chaitya (the Great Stupa of the netherworlds) in the inscriptions and,
- The stone portrait of Emperor Ashoka, surrounded by his queens and female attendants considered to be the only surviving image of the Mauryan Emperor which had the inscription ‘Raya Asoko’ in Brahmi on it.
> Thalaivetti Muniyappan temple
A recent Madras High Court order that Thalaivetti Muniyappan temple near Salem, where a local deity is worshiped as per Hindu rituals, will be treated as a Buddhist temple.
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