Important topics for Security for UPSC 2023
Topics for Security
* Internal Security Challenges in India
> Left-Wing Extremism (LWE) violence came down
Government informed that steadfast implementation of the national policy and action plan to address left-wing extremism has led to a 77% fall in the LWE violence from 2258 incidents in 2009 to 509 incidents in 2021.
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- Fatalities among civilians and security forces declined by 85% (between 2010 to 2021)
- Geographical spread of Maoists’ influence was shrinking- the district most affected by LWE came down to 25 (2021) from 30 (2018)
- Number of districts covered under the security reimbursement expenditure scheme came down to 70 (2021) from 90 (2018)
Left-wing extremism (LWE) is a form of armed insurgency against the State motivated by leftist ideologies.
- SAMADHAN doctrine: It is a one-stop solution to fight LWE, encompassing the entire strategy of government from short-term policy to long-term policy formulated at different levels.
- Aspirational District: Collaborative, bottom-up convergence-based developmental approach in 35 LWE-affected districts.
- Special Infrastructure Scheme (SIS)to construct fortified police stations.
- Road Connectivity Project-for the construction of 5,412 km of roads.
- Installation of Mobile Towers-for endless telecom connectivity.
- Financial inclusion-for ensuring the presence of banking facilities within 5 km to all citizens residing in LWE-affected areas.
- Chhattisgarh proposed an action plan to make the Baster region free of Maoism/Naxalism by giving grants to make cold storage chains for arranging the processing and sale of minor forest produce
- Van Bandhu Kalyan Yojanafor holistic development of the tribal people by targeting their education, employment, trade of minor forest produce, healthcare, infrastructure and connectivity.
- Civic Action Plan:Each CRPF company is given Rs.3 lakh for holding medical camps, sanitation drives, sports meets, distribution of study material to children, minor repairs of school buildings, roads, and bridges to build confidence among the locals.
- Union Government is organizing extensive training and capacity-building programs for the state service officials for the implementation of the Forest Rights Act and PESA Act.
- Skill Development-Construction of 47 ITIs (01 ITI per district) and 68 Skill Development Centers (02 SDCs per district) by 2018-19.
- Roshani Scheme– Skill development program for the Tribal population by the Rural Development ministry.
- Education Initiatives-for building new Kendriya Vidyalayas (KVs) & Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas (JNVs) where they are not present. It is also planned to open more schools under the Eklavya model.
- Facilities of residential schools for children – (e.g. Pota Cabins, Choolo Aasman, Nanhe Parinde, Tamannah) as well as focus on sports infrastructure.
|Governance deficit||Development deficit||Social exclusion||Jal-Jangal-Jameen/Exploitative Deficit (Environmental)|
> Anti-Maritime Piracy Bill 2019
Government has come up with Anti-Maritime Piracy Bill 2019 will bring the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea into domestic law
It will enable Indian authorities to take action against piracy on the high seas.
- A pirate is a seaman, or robber who attacks, seizes or destroys any ship on the high seas and sometimes even harbors at the shore.
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- India currently does not have legislation on matters of piracy on the high seas.
- India ratified the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea in 1995 but was yet to enact it through the bill.
- Indian Penal Code, 1860 (IPC) is not valid for foreigners in international waters.
- Acts of piracy committed by a foreigner outside India’s territorial waters cannot be an offence under the IPC, and those accused in piracy cases have been acquitted due to the lack of jurisdiction.
- Gulf of Aden has been one of the deadliest areas in the oceans due to a large number of piracy incidents.
- Due to an increased naval presence in the Gulf of Aden, it has been observed that piracy operations are shifting towards the east and south, which increases their proximity to India’s west coast.
- 8 Indians aboard a crude oil carrier were kidnapped off the coast of Nigeria last year.
- Piracy is defined now.
- Extra-territorial Jurisdictions: The Bill will apply to the sea beyond the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), that is, beyond 200 nautical miles from India’s coastline.
- For committing acts of piracy, the convicts shall be punished with imprisonment for life or death
- Extraditable offences: This means that the accused can be transferred to any country for prosecution with which India has signed an extradition treaty.
- The central government, in consultation with the Chief Justice of the concerned High Court, may notify the Sessions Courts to be the Designated Courts under this Bill.
- Presumption of guilt: The presumption of guilt will be on the accused
- the accused is in possession of arms, explosives
- there is evidence of use of force against the ship’s crew or passengers, and
- there is evidence of the intended use of bombs and arms
- It is an international agreement that establishes the legal framework for marine and maritime activities.
- It divides marine areas into five main zones namely–
- Internal Waters, Territorial Sea, Contiguous Zone, Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and the High Seas.
- It is a set of rules to govern the oceans and the use of their resources.
- UNCLOS governs all aspects of ocean space